iOS-VideoToolbox硬编码H264

作者 : 开心源码 本文共8139个字,预计阅读时间需要21分钟 发布时间: 2022-05-11 共188人阅读

前言

VideoToolBox是iOS8之后,苹果开发的使用于硬解码编码H264/H265(iOS11以后支持)的API。

对于H264还不理解的童鞋肯定要先看下这边的H264的简介。
H.264基础简介

编码流程

我们实现一个简单的Demo,从摄像头获取到视频数据,而后再编码成H264裸数据保存在沙盒中。

1. 创立初始化VideoToolBox

VideoToolBox创立初始化

核心代码如下

- (void)initVideoToolBox {    dispatch_sync(encodeQueue  , ^{        frameNO = 0;        int width = 480, height = 640;        OSStatus status = VTCompressionSessionCreate(NULL, width, height, kCMVideoCodecType_H264, NULL, NULL, NULL, didCompressH264, (__bridge void *)(self),  &encodingSession);        NSLog(@"H264: VTCompressionSessionCreate %d", (int)status);        if (status != 0)        {            NSLog(@"H264: Unable to create a H264 session");            return ;        }                // 设置实时编码输出(避免推迟)        VTSessionSetProperty(encodingSession, kVTCompressionPropertyKey_RealTime, kCFBooleanTrue);        VTSessionSetProperty(encodingSession, kVTCompressionPropertyKey_ProfileLevel, kVTProfileLevel_H264_Baseline_AutoLevel);                // 设置关键帧(GOPsize)间隔        int frameInterval = 24;        CFNumberRef  frameIntervalRef = CFNumberCreate(kCFAllocatorDefault, kCFNumberIntType, &frameInterval);        VTSessionSetProperty(encodingSession, kVTCompressionPropertyKey_MaxKeyFrameInterval, frameIntervalRef);                //设置期望帧率        int fps = 24;        CFNumberRef  fpsRef = CFNumberCreate(kCFAllocatorDefault, kCFNumberIntType, &fps);        VTSessionSetProperty(encodingSession, kVTCompressionPropertyKey_ExpectedFrameRate, fpsRef);                        //设置码率,均值,单位是byte        int bitRate = width * height * 3 * 4 * 8;        CFNumberRef bitRateRef = CFNumberCreate(kCFAllocatorDefault, kCFNumberSInt32Type, &bitRate);        VTSessionSetProperty(encodingSession, kVTCompressionPropertyKey_AverageBitRate, bitRateRef);                //设置码率,上限,单位是bps        int bitRateLimit = width * height * 3 * 4;        CFNumberRef bitRateLimitRef = CFNumberCreate(kCFAllocatorDefault, kCFNumberSInt32Type, &bitRateLimit);        VTSessionSetProperty(encodingSession, kVTCompressionPropertyKey_DataRateLimits, bitRateLimitRef);                //开始编码        VTCompressionSessionPrepareToEncodeFrames(encodingSession);    });}

初始化这里设置了编码类型kCMVideoCodecType_H264,
分辨率640 * 480,fps,GOP,码率。

2. 从摄像头获取视频数据丢给VideoToolBox编码成H264

从摄像头获取视频数据丢给VideoToolBox编码

初始化视频采集端核心代码如下

//初始化摄像头采集端- (void)initCapture{        self.captureSession = [[AVCaptureSession alloc]init];        //设置录制640 * 480    self.captureSession.sessionPreset = AVCaptureSessionPreset640x480;        AVCaptureDevice *inputCamera = [self cameraWithPostion:AVCaptureDevicePositionBack];      self.captureDeviceInput = [[AVCaptureDeviceInput alloc] initWithDevice:inputCamera error:nil];        if ([self.captureSession canAddInput:self.captureDeviceInput]) {        [self.captureSession addInput:self.captureDeviceInput];    }        self.captureDeviceOutput = [[AVCaptureVideoDataOutput alloc] init];    [self.captureDeviceOutput setAlwaysDiscardsLateVideoFrames:NO];        //设置YUV420p输出    [self.captureDeviceOutput setVideoSettings:[NSDictionary dictionaryWithObject:[NSNumber numberWithInt:kCVPixelFormatType_420YpCbCr8BiPlanarFullRange] forKey:(id)kCVPixelBufferPixelFormatTypeKey]];        [self.captureDeviceOutput setSampleBufferDelegate:self queue:captureQueue];        if ([self.captureSession canAddOutput:self.captureDeviceOutput]) {        [self.captureSession addOutput:self.captureDeviceOutput];    }        //建立连接    AVCaptureConnection *connection = [self.captureDeviceOutput connectionWithMediaType:AVMediaTypeVideo];    [connection setVideoOrientation:AVCaptureVideoOrientationPortrait];}

这里需要注意设置的视频分辨率和编码器一致640 * 480. AVCaptureVideoDataOutput类型选使用YUV420p。

摄像头数据回调部分

- (void)captureOutput:(AVCaptureOutput *)output didOutputSampleBuffer:(CMSampleBufferRef)sampleBuffer fromConnection:(AVCaptureConnection *)connection{    dispatch_sync(encodeQueue, ^{        [self encode:sampleBuffer];    });}//编码sampleBuffer- (void) encode:(CMSampleBufferRef )sampleBuffer{    CVImageBufferRef imageBuffer = (CVImageBufferRef)CMSampleBufferGetImageBuffer(sampleBuffer);    // 帧时间,假如不设置会导致时间轴过长。    CMTime presentationTimeStamp = CMTimeMake(frameNO++, 1000);    VTEncodeInfoFlags flags;    OSStatus statusCode = VTCompressionSessionEncodeFrame(encodingSession,                                                          imageBuffer,                                                          presentationTimeStamp,                                                          kCMTimeInvalid,                                                          NULL, NULL, &flags);    if (statusCode != noErr) {        NSLog(@"H264: VTCompressionSessionEncodeFrame failed with %d", (int)statusCode);                VTCompressionSessionInvalidate(encodingSession);        CFRelease(encodingSession);        encodingSession = NULL;        return;    }    NSLog(@"H264: VTCompressionSessionEncodeFrame Success");}

3.框架中出现的数据结构
CMSampleBufferRef
存放一个或者者多个压缩或者未压缩的媒体数据;
下图列举了两种CMSampleBuffer。

CMSampleBuffer

CMTime
64位的value,32位的scale,media的时间格式;

CMTime

CMBlockBuffer
这里能叫裸数据;

CVPixelBuffer
包含未压缩的像素数据,图像宽度、高度等;

pixelBufferAttributes
CFDictionary包括宽高、像素格式(RGBA、YUV)、用场景(OpenGL ES、Core Animation)

pixelBufferAttributes

CVPixelBufferPool
CVPixelBuffer的缓冲池,由于CVPixelBuffer的创立和销毁开销很大

CVPixelBufferPool

CMVideoFormatDescription
video格式,包括宽高、颜色空间、编码格式信息等;对于H264,还包含sps和pps数据;

CMVideoFormatDescription

4. 编码完成后的数据写入H264

编码写入

这里编码完成我们先判断的能否为I帧,假如是需要读取sps和pps参数集,为什么要这样呢?

我们先看一下一个裸数据H264(Elementary Stream)的NALU构成

NALU

H.264裸流中,不存在单独的SPS、PPS包或者帧,而是附加在I帧前面,存储的一般形式为

00 00 00 01 SPS 00 00 00 01 PPS 00 00 00 01 I帧

前面的这些00 00数据称为起始码(Start Code),它们不属于SPS、PPS的内容。

SPS(Sequence Parameter Sets)和PPS(Picture Parameter Set):H.264的SPS和PPS包含了初始化H.264解码器所需要的信息参数,包括编码所使用的profile,level,图像的宽和高,deblock滤波器等。

上面详情了sps和pps是封装在CMFormatDescriptionRef中,所以我们得先CMFormatDescriptionRef中取出sps和pps写入h264裸流中。

这就不难了解写入H264的流程了。

代码如下

// 编码完成回调void didCompressH264(void *outputCallbackRefCon, void *sourceFrameRefCon, OSStatus status, VTEncodeInfoFlags infoFlags, CMSampleBufferRef sampleBuffer) {    NSLog(@"didCompressH264 called with status %d infoFlags %d", (int)status, (int)infoFlags);    if (status != 0) {        return;    }    if (!CMSampleBufferDataIsReady(sampleBuffer)) {        NSLog(@"didCompressH264 data is not ready ");        return;    }    ViewController* encoder = (__bridge ViewController*)outputCallbackRefCon;    bool keyframe = !CFDictionaryContainsKey( (CFArrayGetValueAtIndex(CMSampleBufferGetSampleAttachmentsArray(sampleBuffer, true), 0)), kCMSampleAttachmentKey_NotSync);        // 判断当前帧能否为关键帧    // 获取sps & pps数据    if (keyframe)    {        CMFormatDescriptionRef format = CMSampleBufferGetFormatDescription(sampleBuffer);        size_t sparameterSetSize, sparameterSetCount;        const uint8_t *sparameterSet;        OSStatus statusCode = CMVideoFormatDescriptionGetH264ParameterSetAtIndex(format, 0, &sparameterSet, &sparameterSetSize, &sparameterSetCount, 0 );        if (statusCode == noErr)        {            // 取得了sps,再获取pps            size_t pparameterSetSize, pparameterSetCount;            const uint8_t *pparameterSet;            OSStatus statusCode = CMVideoFormatDescriptionGetH264ParameterSetAtIndex(format, 1, &pparameterSet, &pparameterSetSize, &pparameterSetCount, 0 );            if (statusCode == noErr)            {                // 获取SPS和PPS data                NSData *sps = [NSData dataWithBytes:sparameterSet length:sparameterSetSize];                NSData *pps = [NSData dataWithBytes:pparameterSet length:pparameterSetSize];                if (encoder)                {                    [encoder gotSpsPps:sps pps:pps];                }            }        }    }        CMBlockBufferRef dataBuffer = CMSampleBufferGetDataBuffer(sampleBuffer);    size_t length, totalLength;    char *dataPointer;        //这里获取了数据指针,和NALU的帧总长度,前四个字节里面保存的    OSStatus statusCodeRet = CMBlockBufferGetDataPointer(dataBuffer, 0, &length, &totalLength, &dataPointer);    if (statusCodeRet == noErr) {        size_t bufferOffset = 0;        static const int AVCCHeaderLength = 4; // 返回的nalu数据前四个字节不是0001的startcode,而是大端模式的帧长度length                // 循环获取nalu数据        while (bufferOffset < totalLength - AVCCHeaderLength) {            uint32_t NALUnitLength = 0;            // 读取NALU长度的数据            memcpy(&NALUnitLength, dataPointer + bufferOffset, AVCCHeaderLength);                        // 从大端转系统端            NALUnitLength = CFSwapInt32BigToHost(NALUnitLength);                        NSData* data = [[NSData alloc] initWithBytes:(dataPointer + bufferOffset + AVCCHeaderLength) length:NALUnitLength];            [encoder gotEncodedData:data];                        // 移动到下一个NALU单元            bufferOffset += AVCCHeaderLength + NALUnitLength;        }    }    }//填充SPS和PPS数据- (void)gotSpsPps:(NSData*)sps pps:(NSData*)pps{    NSLog(@"gotSpsPps %d %d", (int)[sps length], (int)[pps length]);    const char bytes[] = "\x00\x00\x00\x01";    size_t length = (sizeof bytes) - 1; //string literals have implicit trailing '\0'    NSData *ByteHeader = [NSData dataWithBytes:bytes length:length];  //写入startcode    [self.h264FileHandle writeData:ByteHeader];    [self.h264FileHandle writeData:sps];  //写入startcode    [self.h264FileHandle writeData:ByteHeader];    [self.h264FileHandle writeData:pps];    }//填充NALU数据- (void)gotEncodedData:(NSData*)data{    NSLog(@"gotEncodedData %d", (int)[data length]);    if (self.h264FileHandle != NULL)    {        const char bytes[] = "\x00\x00\x00\x01";        size_t length = (sizeof bytes) - 1; //string literals have implicit trailing '\0'        NSData *ByteHeader = [NSData dataWithBytes:bytes length:length];        //写入startcode        [self.h264FileHandle writeData:ByteHeader];        //写入NALU数据        [self.h264FileHandle writeData:data];    }}

结束编码后销毁session

- (void)EndVideoToolBox{    VTCompressionSessionCompleteFrames(encodingSession, kCMTimeInvalid);    VTCompressionSessionInvalidate(encodingSession);    CFRelease(encodingSession);    encodingSession = NULL;}

这样就完成了用VideoToolbox 的H264编码。编码好的H264文件能从沙盒中取出。

总结

仅仅看流程不看代码一定是学不会框架的,自己动手编码试试吧!
Demo下载地址:iOS-VideoToolBox-demo

说明
1. 本站所有资源来源于用户上传和网络,如有侵权请邮件联系站长!
2. 分享目的仅供大家学习和交流,您必须在下载后24小时内删除!
3. 不得使用于非法商业用途,不得违反国家法律。否则后果自负!
4. 本站提供的源码、模板、插件等等其他资源,都不包含技术服务请大家谅解!
5. 如有链接无法下载、失效或广告,请联系管理员处理!
6. 本站资源售价只是摆设,本站源码仅提供给会员学习使用!
7. 如遇到加密压缩包,请使用360解压,如遇到无法解压的请联系管理员
开心源码网 » iOS-VideoToolbox硬编码H264

发表回复